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  • Paris, France is actively enhancing the use of underground space in the pursuit of sustainable urban development
  • Notable examples are Les Halles and La Défense - both are integrated developments of underground rail station and shopping centre, with multi-level design for separated pedestrian and vehicular flow
  • Les Halles :
    • An underground transport hub of rail and metro lines, with well-connected subsurface road and pedestrian networks linking to the neighbourhood
    • On average 750 000 passengers per day, including 150 000 people visiting the shopping centre every day
    • The station is being redeveloped and upgraded to cater for increasing volume of foot traffic and improve the community environment
  • La Défense :
    • A core business district with pedestrian volume reaching 180,000 on working days
    • Vehicular flow maintained at the lower floor, while creating a spacious pedestrian precinct at the podium level
    • Offer a large open area for organising cultural and recreational events, exhibitions, etc.